Lynn Landes 
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Election Fraud and Irregularities 

(some of the information below may be out-of-date and links dead, but you can use to recover them)

UPDATES ON 20/20 ELECTION (click here)

Is there any evidence that voting machines have been rigged or malfunctioned?  Yes. Lots of it.  And it impacts candidates from all party affiliations - Democrats, Republicans, Greens, Independents, and non-affiliated. 

(Also check out the complicity in vote fraud by the following organizations and companies: DOJ & FBI, NEWS NETWORKS' EXIT POLL AND VOTING MACHINE COMPANIES)

Pandora’s Black Box: Did It Really Count Your Vote? (update from 1996) by Phil O’Halloran, Editor and Investigator behind Relevance Magazine

Noteworthy reports and landmark articles: Also check out books and videos

2004-2006 elections:

Here is Lynn Landes's chart on the Florida 2004 election

Lynn's list (1968-2003)

  1. 1968 - Following widely publicized problems with punch cards in the 1968 election, IBM withdrew from the election machine business. (Unfortunately, there's no documentation in this report. We'll keep searching.)

  2. 1970s-1980s Ohio - The Cincinnati Bell-FBI scandal:  Leonard Gates, a Cincinnati Bell employee for 23 years, testified that in the late 1970's and 80's, that the FBI assisted telephone companies with hacking into mainframe election computers in cities across the country. See:

  3. 1970 Florida - Dade County. This is the election that started the Collier brothers on a decades-long investigation of computer vote-rigging and the major news networks complicity. On election day the networks claimed that the courthouse computer broke down. Before the breakdown candidate Ken Collier had 31% of the vote. 20 minutes later, the network reported that Collier had only 16%. The Colliers claim that election night computer breakdowns, followed by a sharp drop-off in votes for certain candidates, was pattern repeating itself across the country. They later alleged in court that three University of Miami computer professors conspired with election officials and news network officials to rig elections in Florida. "One voting machine was used to accurately project (100% of the time) the entire election involving some 40 races and more than 250 candidates." (VoteScam: The Stealing of America)

  4. 1970 South Carolina - "In the first election I witnessed in South Carolina (it was 1970, I believe), a voting machine broke down in one of the largest black precincts in Charleston. It was in the middle of the morning rush. There were no replacement machines available, and while a repairman worked on the problem for a couple of hours, several hundred African-Americans eventually left the precinct without getting the chance to vote. I became righteously indignant, as I often was in those days, but my Charleston friends were philosophical. It happens every election, they told me. And so it did. Never the same precinct. Never the same time of day. Never the same problem with the machine. But for many elections afterward, somewhere in Charleston on election day, a voting machine in a black precinct would break down for an hour or two. Once is an accident. Twice is incredibly bad luck. Three times or more is a plan." 

  5. 1972 Florida - Dade County. The election was a repeat of 1970 (see above) although Ken Collier was not a candidate this time. (VoteScam: The Stealing of America)

  6. 1974 Florida - Dade County. The Collier brothers discover that the Printomatic voting machines contain pre-printed vote tabulations. Thousands of precinct workers walk out in protest, but the news media plays down the story. Both local authorities (Dade County attorney Janet Reno) and the Department of Justice under current election crimes chief, Craig DonSanto, refuse to investigate even though there have long been widespread rumors of rampant election fraud in Dade. (VoteScam: The Stealing of America)

  7. 1980 Florida - History repeats itself again and again and again. "Undervotes"--the failure of votes to register on a voted ballot--occurred on about 10,000 ballots in Palm Beach County this year, where Vice President Al Gore has strong support. In 1988, in MacKay's four Democratic stronghold counties, there were 210,000 people who voted for president but did not vote in the U.S. Senate race. In a comparable U.S. Senate race in a presidential-election year--1980--in the same four counties, three out of every 100 presidential voters did not vote for senator. 

  8. 1980 Utah - Salt Lake County. A last minute breakdown of one of Salt Lake County's two ballot reading computers caused a delay in production of the tally. No county totals were produced for two hours, and the final tally was produced at 5:39 a.m. the following morning. The situation was reported in an article in the Salt Lake Tribune on Nov. 6, 1980.
  9. 1980 West Virginia - Following the general election of November, 1980, three defeated candidates charged gross violations of election laws in Kanawha County, the county in which Charleston is located. According to an article on June 2, 1981 in the Charleston Gazette [42], Darlene Kay Dotson, an employee in the office of the County Clerk, had stated in a deposition taken for Underwood's suit that the ballots from the election in question had been run through the computer on the day after the election to get "precinct-by-precinct reports." ...Appeals of the dismissal were similarly dismissed, and the U.S. Supreme Court announced on February 24, 1987 its refusal to hear the case. 

  10. 1982 Indiana - Elkhart County, General election. A major source of problems in the election was the apparent failure to properly test the equipment prior to use. The losing candidates charged that no test of the automatic tabulating equipment was undertaken five days prior to the election, as required by the Indiana statute then in effect, and that only a superficial test was done at about 4 p.m. on election day. The losing candidates' case, brought before the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana, named the local board officials as defendants. It was alleged in the pleadings in that case that the computer system was not tested, that there was no error-free test of the system before the official count, that there was no actual count of the ballots and that the alleged count and certification of the vote count was fraudulent. The pleadings and briefs further stated that the control cards for the operation of the program were altered by the vendor representative during the counting, and that the acts by the election officials were willful, wanton, reckless and oppressive. However, the court entered a summary judgment on Feb. 21, 1985 against the losing candidates because, in the court's opinion, there were no allegations of any "willful conduct which undermines the organic processes by which candidates are elected" (language of an important precedent, Hennings v. Grafton) 
  11. 1983-87 Illinois - "Saltman’s 1988 report cited an extensive series of tests of the computer counting systems used in Illinois from 1983-87 which tested tens of thousands of ballots instead of the usual three or four dozen used in most pre-election tests. In the Illinois test series, it was discovered that significant errors in the computers’ basic counting instructions were found in 20% of the tests. In 1988, Michael Harty, the Illinois director of voting systems and standards, pointed out that these gross "tabulation-program errors" would not have been caught by election authorities and lamented to the New Yorker. "At one point, we had tabulation errors in 28% of the systems tested, and nobody cared"."'sBlackBox.htm / The Illinois State Board of Elections, Division of Voting Systems, under the direction of Michael L. Harty, has undertaken tests of vote-counting computer systems. Between 1983 and 1987, the division conducted 48 tests of the automatic tabulating equipment and computer programs in 41 election jurisdictions. The tests have involved anywhere from 1,000 to 65,000 test ballots. The division found apparent computer program tabulation errors in 11 of the election jurisdictions tested. 

  12. 1984 Florida - Palm Beach County . Following the general election, David Anderson, defeated candidate for Property Appraiser of Palm Beach County, sued to contest the election of his opponent Rebecca Walker. [72] Anderson asked that the Court order a hand recount of the ballots, or a hand recount of at least several precincts in that election. The issues on which Anderson sued included handling of the ballots, precinct procedures for signing in voters, ballot secrecy, counting of punch card ballots, and possible manipulation of the computer program. 
  13. 1984 Illinois - Effingham County, General Election: A county-level office was not being tabulated in five precincts, though votes were assigned to the office. 
  14. 1984 Illinois - Jackson County, General Election: A translation error between precinct returns and the summary report caused the summary report to fail to properly reflect the precinct sum totals for certain candidates. 
  15. 1984 Illinois - LaSalle County, General Election: The straight party vote was not being tabulated for all candidates in a party. In addition, when an overvote occurred in the straight party column and also in an individual candidate's punches on the same ballot, the candidates involved actually lost a vote, i.e., had their vote totals reduced by a vote (instead of simply being denied a vote). 
  16. 1984 Illinois - Grundy County, General Primary Election: Forty-seven percent of the precincts had one or more of the following types of errors: (1) the assignment of the wrong county board districts in the precincts, (2) the deletion of candidates in precincts, (3) the incorrect assignment of candidates to precincts, (4) assignment of only 2 vote for each vote cast, and (5) incorrect totals of precinct votes on the summary report for several candidates. 
  17. 1984 Illinois - Rock Island County, General Primary Election: Two votes for each vote cast were being tabulated for a candidate. In addition, the "no" votes on a proposition were not being counted. Further, the summary report totals did not properly reflect precinct sum totals for several candidates. 
  18. 1984 Illinois - Jackson County, General Election: Column binary punching appeared to cause severe tabulation delay. In addition, the card reader stopped occasionally during the tabulation of a precinct. When this condition occurred, the results already obtained had to be erased and all the ballots for the precinct had to be retabulated. The cause of this difficulty could not be immediately ascertained. 
  19. 1984 Illinois - Will County, General Election: During the system test, the card reader was jammed twice by ballots. The ballots involved were almost completely destroyed in the process. 
  20. 1984 Maryland - On November 8, two days after the Tuesday, November 6, 1984 general election, and in accordance with the rules of the Maryland State Administrative Board of Election Laws (SABEL), voted punch card ballots from two districts of Carroll County were taken to a neighboring county, Frederick, to be rerun on an independently-managed system. It was clear from these reruns that one of the computers used was in error in determining the outcome of a contest between Wayne Cogswell and incumbent T. Edward Lippy, for Carroll County School Board. Manual counts of the votes on ballots from both Frederick and Carroll Counties showed that the Carroll County computer was the one that was incorrect. The initial but unofficial count, made public on the evening of the election, had incorrectly indicated that Cogswell was the winner. An investigation, undertaken the next day (November 9) by Craig Jester, a county computer program contractor, demonstrated that a wrong utility computer program for reading the ballot cards had been used. According to a July 11, 1985 story by Chris Guy in the Carroll County Times referring to the court-ordered recount, "...defeated candidate Wayne Cogswell had verification that use of an incorrect computer program caused a nearly 13,000-vote mistake in the unofficial totals released election night." 

  21. 1985 Illinois - Moline, Consolidated Municipal and Township Election. The following report is primarily based on an article in Illinois Issues, November, 1985, that was republished in a newsletter of the National Center for Policy Alternatives. [66] In this election on April 2, 1985, the failure of a card reader to read correctly caused a losing aldermanic candidate for Moline City Council to be put into office. The error was not rectified until about three months later. 
  22. 1985 Illinois - Morgan County, Consolidated Election: No straight party votes registered for the candidates of a party. However, this did not affect the individual candidate totals. 
  23. 1985 Illinois - Peoria County, Consolidated Election: The computer program misassigned straight party punches for a candidate for township supervisor. The candidate received a tally from a straight party punch for the opposite party but failed to receive a tally from the straight party punch of his own party. 
  24. 1985 Illinois - Sangamon County, Consolidated Election: The computer program would not accept ballots with proper ballot style identifiers. This error was not discovered by the test previously run by the local jurisdiction. In addition, ballots in precincts with more than one ballot style did not contain different style identifiers. Thus, it would not have been possible to separate the voted ballots of the different styles. 
  25. 1985 Illinois - Logan County, Consolidated Primary Election: Tabulation errors occurred when precincts were split by ward boundaries. When the same punch position was assigned to different candidates in different wards in the same precinct, votes for one of the candidates were not tallied by the computer program. 
  26. 1985 Texas - 03/26/1987 The Dallas Morning News The Texas secretary of state's office has decided to assign a computer expert and a lawyer as inspectors for the Dallas city elections on April 4 to check the county's computerized tabulating equipment. A spokesman for the office said Wednesday that the assignments were made after a briefing by the state attorney general's office, which has been investigating allegations of vote fraud in the tabulating system used in the 1985 mayor's race. Dallas County District Attorney John Vance said Monday that the attorney general's office has asked his staff for assistance in the investigation, which centers on the reliability of the vote-counting machines and whether they are vulnerable to fraud through subtle changes in computer programs. also in 

  27. 1986 Arizona -  Maricopa County. A clerical error that would have interchanged votes for the two major parties in this primary election was caught during testing. Pre-punches (ballot style identifiers) were incorrectly specified, and if the errors had not been caught, votes in the primary contests in each party would have been assigned to the other party during tallying. Poor communication between the county data processing department and the election administration contributed to the problem. A well-designed testing process caught the error, so that ballot counting during the actual election was not affected. 
  28. 1986 Georgia 11/07 - Atlanta Journal Constitution Computer troubles have been blamed for ballot discrepancies in a race that state Sen. Donn Peevy (D-Gwinnett) lost by eight votes. Frances Duncan, director of the state Election Division in the secretary of state's office, said Thursday a partial recount showed 400 fewer ballots cast in the Cates D precinct, 70 more ballots cast in the Dacula precinct, and 44 more ballots cast in the Lawrenceville precinct. The recount was started Wednesday night at the request of the Republican victor, former Lawrenceville Mayor Steve Pate, but was halted when the discrepancies appeared, said county Elections Superintendent Lloyd Harris. Harris blamed the problem on the computer used to recount the votes. He said an official from a California computer firm will fly to Georgia on Monday to make necessary program changes, and the recount won't be completed until early next week. 

  29. 1986 Illinois - Elkhart County. Following the 1986 general election, a State-mandated recount was undertaken that included ballots from Elkhart County. In this recount, directed by Dean David Link of the Notre Dame Law School, it was discovered that the computer program used to count ballots in Elkhart County was not counting correctly according to Indiana law. ttp:// 
  30. 1986 Illinois - Whiteside County, General Primary Election: The system tabulated votes on ballots that contained invalid security codes (ballot style identifiers). 
  31. 1986 Illinois - Pulaski County, General Primary Election: The principal disk that contained the vote-tallying program failed to operate for the system test. The duplicate (backup) disk was employed. The principal disk operated correctly for the public test. No reason for the problem was discovered. 
  32. 1986 Nebraska - "Back when (Chuck) Hagel first ran there for the U.S. Senate in 1996, his company's computer-controlled voting machines showed he'd won stunning upsets in both the primaries and the general election. The Washington Post (1/13/1997) said Hagel's "Senate victory against an incumbent Democratic governor was the major Republican upset in the November election." According to Bev Harris of, Hagel won virtually every demographic group, including many largely Black communities that had never before voted Republican. Hagel was the first Republican in 24 years to win a Senate seat in Nebraska.Six years later Hagel ran again, this time against Democrat Charlie Matulka in 2002, and won in a landslide. As his website says, Hagel "was re-elected to his second term in the United States Senate on November 5, 2002 with 83% of the vote. That represents the biggest political victory in the history of Nebraska." What Hagel's website fails to disclose is that about 80 percent of those votes were counted by computer-controlled voting machines put in place by the company affiliated with Hagel. Built by that company. Programmed by that company. "This is a big story, bigger than Watergate ever was," said Hagel's Democratic opponent in the 2002 Senate race, Charlie Matulka. "They say Hagel shocked the world, but he didn't shock me." 
  33. 1986 Ohio - Stark County. An unprecedented court-ordered "audit" (hand recount) of a Stark County computer recount in a county commissioners primary contest again named as winner the candidate who had apparently won in the official results of the May 6, 1986 primary but lost in the computer recount. The "audit" revealed a computer program error that permitted over 100 invalid punchcard ballots to be counted in the recount.  
  34. 1986 Oklahoma - Oklahoma County In the general election difficulties perceived by an independent group of local observers involved, among other items, the operability of the precinct-located, mark-sense computers, and the anomalous numbers of counted ballots that were reported. The county signed a contract to purchase the mark-sense vote-counting equipment in the summer of 1984. During the November 4, 1986 general election, the number of non-processed ballots was over 2% in a significant number of precincts. According to State rules, the county Board of Elections "has the authority" [68] (but is not required) to recount precincts with over 2% non-processed ballots. The county board has used its discretion in selecting particular precincts for reprocessing. Reprocessing, if done at all, is done on the county's central computer. Not all precincts with over 2% non-processed ballots were reprocessed in the November, 1986 general election.  
  35. 1987 Illinois - City of Chicago, Consolidated General Election: The system test indicated an approximate 3% failure rate of program chips. The chips were improperly programmed or "burned." The malfunction would have been identified during the public test. 
  36. 1987 Illinois - Boone County, Consolidated Primary Election: Due to substantial ballot quality defects, a system test could not be executed. New test ballots were ordered. 
  37. 1988 Florida - History repeats itself again and again and again. "Undervotes"--the failure of votes to register on a voted ballot--occurred on about 10,000 ballots in Palm Beach County this year, where Vice President Al Gore has strong support. In 1988, in MacKay's four Democratic stronghold counties, there were 210,000 people who voted for president but did not vote in the U.S. Senate race. In a comparable U.S. Senate race in a presidential-election year--1980--in the same four counties, three out of every 100 presidential voters did not vote for senator; in 1988, 14 of every 100 did not. In the entire state of Florida, excluding the four MacKay counties, fewer than one of 100 presidential voters--25,000--were not recorded as also voting in the Senate race. Three of the MacKay counties in 1988 are among Gore's big four recount counties. MacKay believed "very strongly" that the Senate election was stolen from him. He suspected, as a reason for the vote drop-off, the use, in the questioned counties, of a ballot layout that crowded the Senate race onto the bottom of the same page with the presidential race. The voting electorate for president dropped to 86% for the Senate, then jumped back up to 97% for secretary of state. Suspecting, too, "a problem in the [computerized vote-counting] software," MacKay asked that his campaign be permitted to examine it in five counties, but was refused on grounds that it was the secret property of the election-business companies. "A damned outrage," he said of this. MacKay's campaign "late" polls had him ahead by 5-9%, according to Dugger in APR Reporter - Vol. 16, NO. 3

  38. 1995 Louisiana - Republican Susan Bernecker, a popular first-time challenger for Jefferson Parish Council went down to defeat by a 33% to 58% margin. "In all of the 54 precincts the percentages were in the same one third / two third range – even in ones that I didn’t get out and pound the pavement". She cites another female candidate in the Orleans Parish who got 33% of the vote in every precinct. After the defeat, her suspicions aroused, Bernecker and a producer friend went down to the warehouse where the Sequoia Pacific computers had been taken after the election. She had her friend videotape her while she pressed the button next to her name on the ballot. To her dismay, the name of her primary opponent registered on a small LED located near the bottom of the machine that most voters apparently do not notice, since, according to a Sequoia Pacific official, it is two feet below the buttons. Bernecker recounts pressing her name again and again on 12 machines and she discovered that her name popped up in the LED only one out of every three times. The machine was far less fickle when her opponent’s button was pressed, counting his name faithfully every time but one, when the third-place candidate’s name appeared. Bernecker, a civic activist and the owner of a fitness and health center, cried foul, along with five other candidates, who all sued the elections commissioner and the city of Baton Rouge. The judge, who, only two days before the hearing, inexplicably replaced the appointed judge (whom Bernecker considered to be fair) threw out the case the same day.'sBlackBox.htm 

  39. 1995 Louisiana - ... Republican supporters of U.S. Senate candidate Woody Jenkins ...cried foul in his election ...With only ten minutes left in the count, and losing by a few thousand votes, Jenkins’ opponent suddenly surged ahead with ten thousand votes that came out of the predominantly inner city Orleans parish, which had been noted for low voter turnouts. But, in her local paper it was said to have enjoyed a turnout of 105%!'sBlackBox.htm 

  40. 1996 Massachusetts - "One most recent example of a local story with little or no national coverage was the November Democrat Primary race for the Massachusetts’ 10th District seat in the U.S. Congress, where challenger Philip Johnston – who had been declared the winner over entrenched Democrat nominee, William Delahunt – lost the nomination on a bizarre second recount. Johnston told Relevance: "The court looked at some disputed punchcard ballots which had already been declared to be blank and the court declared them to be actual votes." Suspiciously, 756 of the 968disputed punchcard ballots came out of the same community –Weymouth, Mass – suggesting that either "Weymouthenians" are shamefully inferior cardpunchers than their neighbors in the rest of the state, or someone may have tampered with the ballots. The State’s Supreme Judicial Court examined the suspect ballots to determine "voter intent" by detecting "dimples" and other faint markings and somehow ended up awarding 469votes to Delahunt and 177 to Johnston, thereby reversing the latter’s victory."'sBlackBox.htm 

  41. 1997 Florida 04/07 The Tampa Tribune - Bob Stamper, a 10-year state attorney investigator, usually works on white-collar crime cases. But his investigation at the supervisor of elections office involves no crime. Rather, the probe is focusing on a ballot count that landed Republican Bruce L. Parker at the top of the heap election night, but later unseated him in favor of Democrat Marlene Duffy Young after a court-ordered hand recount. Todd Urosevich, a vice president of American Information Systems [now ES&S], which made Polk's troubled ballot-counting equipment, already has been interviewed by Stamper, and told Stamper his machines were not responsible for the miscount. 

  42. 1998 Hawaii - Faulty ES&S machines used in Hawaii's 1998 elections forced that state's first-ever recount. The company paid $250,000 to settle contract disputes and $280,000 to recount the ballots after complaints about poorly trained poll watchers, malfunctioning voting machines and spoiled ballots. Nonetheless, the state and ES&S have been negotiating a new eight-year contract to count ballots in the next four elections, said Dwayne Yoshina, Hawaii's chief election officer. Two other potential bidders dropped out of competition.

  43. 2000 Florida - History repeats itself again and again and again. "Undervotes"--the failure of votes to register on a voted ballot--occurred on about 10,000 ballots in Palm Beach County this year, where Vice President Al Gore has strong support. In 1988, in MacKay's four Democratic stronghold counties, there were 210,000 people who voted for president but did not vote in the U.S. Senate race. In a comparable U.S. Senate race in a presidential-election year--1980--in the same four counties, three out of every 100 presidential voters did not vote for senator; in 1988, 14 of every 100 did not. In the entire state of Florida, excluding the four MacKay counties, fewer than one of 100 presidential voters--25,000--were not recorded as also voting in the Senate race. Three of the MacKay counties in 1988 are among Gore's big four recount counties. 

  44. 2000 Florida - An entire precinct had been left uncounted. The ballots had been run through the card reader, but the operator had pressed CLEAR instead of SET. (The recount gave Gore +368, Bush +23.) In Deland, Volusia County, a disk glitch caused 16,000 votes to be subtracted from Gore and hundreds added to Bush in the original totals. This was detected when 9,888 votes were noticed for the Socialist Workers Party candidate, and a new disk was created. (The corrected results were Gore 193, Bush 22, Harris 8.)  In Pinellas County, election workers were conducting a SECOND recount after the first recount gave Gore more than 400 new votes. Some cards that were thought to have been counted were not.[ Source: Democrats tell of problems at the polls across Florida, The New York Times, November 10, 2000, National Edition, p. A24] 

  45. 2000 - Florida - Supervisor of Elections in Palm Beach County, Florida, who some say single handedly cost Al Gore the presidency, is back with another debacle. Her office is being sued by the former Republican mayor of Boca Raton, Emil Danciu, who claims that the city council election held last March should be re-run due to malfunctions in the new $14 million dollar computer voting machines LePore bought from Sequoia Voting Systems Inc.. Rob Ross was the lead attorney

  46. 2000 New Jersey 02/18/ THE RECORD, Northern New Jersey About 75 percent of the voting machines in the city of Passaic failed to work when the polls opened on Election Day, forcing an undetermined number of voters to use paper ballots during the morning hours. An independent consultant who later examined the machines concluded the problem was due to sabotage, which has led a Democratic freeholder to refer the matter to the FBI. 

  47. 2000 New Mexico "The immediate implication of our analysis is that the U.S. can lower the number of lost votes in 2004 by replacing punch cards and lever machines with optical scanning. Punch cards and levers are, in our assessment, dominated technologies. That is, there are voting technologies available today that are superior, from the perspective of lost votes. Scanners consistently perform better than punch cards and levers. We also believe that optical scanning dominates older full-faced, push button DREs, which comprise fully two-thirds of the electronic machines in our analysis. Touchscreens are, in our opinion, still unproven. Some counties, like Riverside, California, have had good experiences; other counties like Beaver County, Pennsylvania, and many counties in New Mexico had very high residual vote rates (over five percent in 2000)."

  48. 2000 Pennsylvania 11/14 - Pittsburgh Post Gazette City Councilwoman Valerie McDonald yesterday called for an investigation of voting machine irregularities at polling places in Lincoln-Lemington, Homewood and the East Hills last week, saying machines in the city's 12th and 13th wards and other predominantly black neighborhoods were malfunctioning for much of Election Day. McDonald said both machines at a Lincoln-Lemington polling place were out of service for the first three hours, driving away 50 voters. Several machines were in and out of service at 13th Ward polling places in Homewood and East Hills, smoking and spitting out jammed and crumpled paper and leaving poll workers to wait hours for repair by Allegheny County elections division workers. Workers in the polling places "strongly felt that the machines were intentionally programmed incorrectly ... and were sabotaged," 

  49. 2000 Pennsylvania - "The immediate implication of our analysis is that the U.S. can lower the number of lost votes in 2004 by replacing punch cards and lever machines with optical scanning. Punch cards and levers are, in our assessment, dominated technologies. That is, there are voting technologies available today that are superior, from the perspective of lost votes. Scanners consistently perform better than punch cards and levers. We also believe that optical scanning dominates older full-faced, push button DREs, which comprise fully two-thirds of the electronic machines in our analysis. Touchscreens are, in our opinion, still unproven. Some counties, like Riverside, California, have had good experiences; other counties like Beaver County, Pennsylvania, and many counties in New Mexico had very high residual vote rates (over five percent in 2000)." 

  50. 2000 Venezuela - Associated Press (AP) reporter Jessica Fargen wrote in June 2000, "ES&S has felt the most fallout from its problems in Venezuela, where that nation's highest court suspended the May 28 elections because of technical glitches in the cards used to tabulate votes. Dozens of protesters have chanted "Gringos get out!" at ES&S technicians working in Venezuela's election offices. The U.S. Embassy in Caracas has protested the treatment by secret police of ES&S personnel, including alleged verbal and physical abuse and threats. Venezuela sent an air force jet to Omaha to fetch computers and experts in a last-ditch effort to fix the problem before the delay was ordered. Venezuela's president and the head of the nation's election board accused ES&S of trying to destabilize the country's electoral process." 

  51. 2001California - "...the manufacturers of Riverside's system, Sequoia Voting Systems Inc., based in Hayward, Calif., insist that their machines, which are plugged into the wall and not hooked up to a central network open to hackers, are thoroughly reliable, accurate and secure. There were glitches in November. The tabulating machines shut down shortly after 11 p.m. with 10 percent of the ballots uncounted because the system did not have a large enough capacity. Although that was an embarrassment — delegations from as far away as Japan were observing that countywide debut — Sequoia officials said the solution was a simple matter of adjusting the software." 

  52. 2001 Texas 11/19 Houston Chronicle "We have a problem where voters are being turned away from polls even though they have the proper identification," said Joe Householder, spokesman for the Brown campaign. "A potential reason may be that computers were down, but that is not an excuse. The law is pretty clear on this." A computer problem cut off access to the county's voter registration database for about one hour after polls opened Saturday afternoon, said Tony Sirvello, administrator of elections for the Harris County Clerk's Office. ...the problem affected four polling sites: the Fiesta Mart on Kirby, the Spring Branch Community Center, Kashmere Multi-Service Center and the Sunnyside Multi-Service Center 

  53. 2002 Alabama - No one at ES&S can explain the mystery votes that changed after polling places had closed, flipping the election from the Democratic winner to a Republican in the Alabama Governor's race. "Something happened. I don't have enough intelligence to say exactly what," said Mark Kelley, of Election Systems & Software. Baldwin County results showed that Democrat Don Siegelman earned enough votes to win the state of Alabama. All the observers went home. The next morning, however, 6,300 of Siegelman's votes inexplicably disappeared, and the election was handed to Republican Bob Riley. A recount was requested, but denied. The "glitch" is still being examined. (By a citizens group?) No. (By a judge?) No. (By an independent computer expert?) No. (By someone who works for ES&S?) Yes. / 

  54. 2002 California - California machines that can't add: The problem in Monterey, California was that the department's mainframe computers refused to add the results of early absentee votes and those cast on touch-screen computers prior to Election Day. "We didn't have any problems whatsoever during our pre-election tests," said the elections official. 

  55. 2002 California - 103,000 votes lost by computers in Broward County. In California, all the "Yes" votes registered as "No." 

  56. 2002 California 02/11/ - The San Francisco Chronicle Jones' investigation raised the specter of massive inaccuracies in the November 2000 vote count -- enough to put in question the election of some members of the Board of Supervisors...For instance, in precinct 3213 on Russian Hill, the city reported counting 328 ballots and 327 signatures were in the roster. But when state investigators opened the box for that precinct that city officials pulled from storage, they found only 170 ballots. In one precinct, the major discrepancies found by Jones seem to have existed on election night as well. In polling place 2214 in the Western Addition, the city counted 416 ballots, but there were only 362 signatures in the roster, and the secretary of state found only 357 paper ballots. 

  57. 2002 Florida - Janet Reno's (primary) campaign for governor is trying to build a sweeping case against the now-infamous touch-screen voting machines that campaign officials believe may be responsible for Reno's losing thousands of votes in the Democratic primary. Among the allegations: Touch-screen machines suffer from a buildup of smudges that create inaccuracies as more people vote; some voters saw the wrong candidate's name light up when they touched the screen; many machines may not have properly calculated votes; and some machines had more than the typical percentage of ballots without a vote in the gubernatorial primary. Election Systems and Software, the company that manufactures the iVotronic machines used in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, could not be reached late Saturday. Last week, ES&S said in a statement that its machines ``accurately captured 100 percent of the votes which were cast. No votes were lost or not counted.'' 
  58. 2002 Florida -  McBride was a tough guy to vote for: One voter said that he tried 10 times, and every time he pressed McBride the Bush choice lit up. He could only get his vote to light up the McBride choice when he pressed a dead area of the screen. No paper trail was available, so no one really knows who got any of the votes — regardless of which candidate lit up. Similar problems were reported in various permutations, for various candidates, by several Florida voters, and an identical problem was noted in Texas. 
  59. 2002 Florida - On Nov. 7, 2002, CNN reported that electronic voting systems in South Florida’s Broward County crashed, causing 103,222 ballots to be lost on election night. County election officials said the missing votes did not affect the outcome of any races, but one couldn’t help but remember that George W. Bush was handed the 2002 presidency based on a slimmer margin. 
  60. 2002 Florida - 09/17 The Bradenton Herald (Florida) Union County...has had trouble-free elections dating back at least to the early 1920s as the only county in Florida that continued to hand count its ballots. But that changed this year... ...But counting the county's 2,642 ballots using the new optical-scan machinery this year took two days, after a programming error rendered the automatic count useless. So it was back to the tried-and-true hand count for Union County, which is about 130 miles east of Tallahassee. The equipment vendor, Election Systems and Software Inc., accepted responsibility for the problems, which were caused when a printing error gave both Republican and Democratic ballots the same code. The machines read them both as Republican. Todd Urosevich, vice-president of election product sales, said the company will pick up the expenses for the hand count and apologized to the county. 
  61. 2002 Florida - "Only a few problems, meanwhile, were reported in the Florida counties of Miami-Dade and Broward where difficulties with high-tech machines had thrown the Sept. 10 primary into confusion and delayed results for a week in the Democratic gubernatorial contest." 
  62. 2002 Florida - November 10, This whistleblower is an accountant, and he took it upon himself to call Century Village. He was told that their occupancy has remained stable (around 13,000 residents) since the complex hit capacity in 1998.  Miami Herald listed the following figures for the total votes cast at the Democrat-friendly Broward County Century Village precinct in the general election:

    1994: 7,515
    1998: 10,947
    2002: 4,179
  63. 2002 Florida - "I was the clerk of a precinct in Broward County FL. We counted exactly the number of voters who voted on the machines. The total was 713, however the machine count was 749. I reported this information to the Broward County Staff upon returning my supplies that evening after the election. "They, to my disbelief, thought they had a successful election. They told me if the difference between the actual voters and the machine vote was 10% that that was within their acceptable range. "Imagine this could be 100,000 votes per million votes cast! And who would ever know what candidate or issue they were assigned to. "If you like please contact me..." Thank you. Ellen In a follow up, we obtained her notarized affidavit, which contains a statement that Mike Lindsay, from the Florida Division of Elections, told her that the state of Florida would not certify any machine that produced a paper trail. This matches another report we received, from a voting machine manufacturer who was told that it is illegal to have a paper trail in the state of Florida. When he asked to see the law, they could not produce it. Ellen also says that the ES&S machines purchased in Broward County were bought while they were not certified. This is corroborated by a statement from another witness, and bears looking into further. 
  64. 2002 Georgia - In one county ballots in at least three precincts listed the wrong county commission races. Officials shut down the polls to fix the problem but didn't know how many wrong ballots were cast or how to correct errant votes. In another, a county commission race was omitted from a ballot. Cards voters need to access machines malfunctioned. Elsewhere, machines froze up and dozens were had software programming errors. 
  65. 2002 Georgia - Officials forgot where they put their memory cards: Fulton County election officials said that memory cards from 67 electronic voting machines had been misplaced, so ballots cast on those machines were left out of previously announced vote totals. No hand count can shine any light on this; the entire state of Georgia went to touch-screen machines with no physical record of the vote. Fifty-six cards, containing 2,180 ballots, were located, but 11 memory cards still were missing Thursday evening. Bibb County and Glynn County each had one card missing after the initial vote count. When DeKalb County election officials went home early Wednesday morning, they were missing 10 cards. 
  66. 2002 Georgia - "Technical problems characterized as minor were reported in three of Georgia's 159 counties, with two machines failing in one. One touchscreen machine locked up and crashed as Mary Perdue, the wife of Georgia's Republican gubernatorial candidate Sonny Perdue, was casting her ballot." 

  67. 2002 Kansas - The Associated Press Thursday, August 22, 2002 Kansas -- "The discovery of a computer glitch reversed one outcome from this month's primary elections in Kansas, and an unsuccessful candidate in another race has based his request for a special election on technical difficulties that allegedly occurred in his race. In Clay County, computer results from a county commission primary had challenger Roy Jennings defeating incumbent Jerry Mayo by 22 votes. The hand recount, completed Tuesday, revealed Mayo as the winner — and by a landslide, 540 votes to 175. In one ward, which Mayo carried 242-78, the computer had mistakenly reversed the totals. And in the absentee voting, which originally showed a 47-44 edge for Jennings, a hand count found Mayo winning 72-19. "I'm sorry everyone had to go through that, but glad to see the will of the voters carried through," Mayo said. Jennings, whose attorneys walked out of Tuesday's election panel hearing, said he had reservations about the recount. "The ballots and counting machine and program chip were open to anyone with access to the (county) clerk's office, mostly active opponents to my campaign," Jennings said. And in Great Bend, a fossil hunter who sought a seat in the state Legislature is seeking a special election, alleging problems with a machine that scans ballots opened the door for possible tampering. Alan Detrich lost his GOP primary bid for the 112th District seat to the incumbent, Rep. John Edmonds of Great Bend, by a margin of 2 to 1. Detrich, also of Great Bend, wrote to Atty. Gen. Carla Stovall and Secretary of State Ron Thornburgh on Monday with concerns about how ballots were handled on election night. "I have no evidence that any ballots were tampered with, but the fact that the ballot boxes were outside Barton County for approximately five hours in two separate vehicles with unknown occupants raises serious questions," Detrich wrote. " 
  68. 2002 Louisiana - "I can't say every precinct had a problem, but the vast majority did" -- Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana Clerk of Court John Dahmer said at least 20 percent of the machines in his parish malfunctioned. "One percent might be acceptable, but we're not even close to that," Dahmer said. He said 15 employees worked to combat the malfunctions. 
  69. 2002 Louisiana - More than 200 machine malfunctions reported in Ascension Parish (Louisiana): An elections official gnashed his teeth as more than 200 machine malfunctions were called in. The Parish Clerk said his staff was on the road repairing machines from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. In one case, a machine wasn't repaired until 12:30 a.m. Wednesday. "A mechanic would fix a machine, and before he could get back to the office, it would shut down again," Bourque said. 
  70. 2002 Louisiana - 11/07/2002 The Times-Picayune - "With a 34-vote margin separating the two justice of the peace candidates in St. Bernard Parish, a glitch that has left 35 absentee votes untallied has everyone guessing about the outcome of the race. Local elections officials say the problem will be fixed today so the final votes can be tallied and a winner declared. "Officials from the parish registrar of voters and the Elections Division of the secretary of state's office spent Wednesday scrambling to count the absentee ballots, which became inaccessible when the system locked up Tuesday shortly after 8 p.m. "The uncounted ballots could decide the race for the Ward K seat, in which Myrty Alfonso led Melvin Guerra by 34 votes, 809 to 775, with all precincts reporting. "...Upon opening the absentee voting machines at 8 p.m., officials realized that the machines were locked up and contacted state election supervisors, who arrived at about 8:30 p.m., Crumhorn said. But even with technicians on the scene, the machines would not yield their tallies. "'They didn't have the tools to work on it last night,' Crumhorn said. "The tools arrived Wednesday afternoon, but the machines still wouldn't function, Crumhorn said. "That left voters and both candidates waiting until today to discover who won."'I've never heard of such a thing in all my life,' Guerra said."...Something just went wrong -- I don't know what," she said. 'Next election, we're going to start at 4 p.m. or 5 p.m. in the evening.'
  71. 2002 Maryland - Vote Republican (read "Democrat") — In Maryland, a software programming error upset a lot of voters when they saw a banner announcing "Democrat" at the top of their screen, no matter who they voted for. 
  72. 2002 Nebraska - When all else fails, use duct tape: In Sarpy County, Nebraska, they used duct tape to stick a block of wood under the machine — that's the only way it would feed votes through. 
  73. 2002 Nebraska - Candidate for governor finds vote-counting computer asleep: I spoke with Paul Rosberg, the Nebraska Party candidate for governor, who told me he eagerly took advantage of a Nebraska law that lets candidates watch their votes being counted. He first was invited to watch an optical scanner machine, which had no counter on it, and then was taken into the private room, where he was allowed to watch a computer on a table with a blank screen. So much for public counting of votes. 
  74. 2002 Nebraska - Nearly a day later, no votes were counted in Adams County. A software programming error from ES&S caused the problem, County Election Commissioner Chris Lewis said. Attempts to clear up the problem, including using a backup machine, failed. The problem affected at least 12,000 ballots. "The irony is they had one of the newest pieces of voting equipment in the state," said Nebraska Secretary of State John Gale." 
  75. 2002 Nebraska - This crushing defeat never happened: Vote-counting machines failed to tally "yes" votes on the Gretna school-bond issue (Nebraska), giving the false impression that the measure failed miserably. The measure actually passed by a 2-1 margin. Responsibility for the errors was attributed to ES&S, the Omaha company that provided the ballots and the machines. New Jersey - "What the hell do I do with this?" — A bag full of something that looked like rolls of cash register tapes was handed to the County Clerk. A computer "irregularity" in a New Jersey vote-counting system caused three of five relay stations to fail, leaving a single county clerk holding the bag for a hand count. 
  76. 2002 New Mexico - Candidate declared victory prematurely: New Mexico candidate Heather Wilson declared herself the victor and made a speech, even though the margin was only 51:49 and votes weren't fully counted. First reports explained that "thousands of new votes had been found but not counted." Later, when thousands of new votes were not discovered after all, the reason for her victory premonition was changed to an influx of uncounted absentee votes, 2:1 for Wilson. 
  77. 2002 New Mexico - A software programming error caused machine to count the wrong names: In Taos, New Mexico just 25 votes separated the candidates in one race; another race had a 79-vote margin. After noticing that the computer was counting votes under the wrong names, Taos County Clerk Jeannette Rael contacted the programmer of the optical machine and was told it was a software programming error. The votes were then hand-counted. 
  78. 2002 New Jersey - 44 of 46 machines malfunction in New Jersey: Election workers had to turn away up to 100 early voters when it was discovered that 96 percent of the voting machines couldn't register votes for the Mayor, despite having the machines pre-tested and certified for use. / 
  79. 2002 New York - Voting machine tallies impounded in New York: Software programming errors hampered and confused the vote tally on election night and most of the next day, causing elections officials to pull the plug on the vote-reporting web site. Commissioners ordered that the voting machine tallies be impounded, and they were guarded overnight by a Monroe County deputy sheriff. 
  80. 2002 North Carolina -  Trying to find 300 voters so they can vote again: In North Carolina, one out of four new touch-screen voting machines failed in early voting, losing 294 votes. The machines were shut down before Election Day, so election workers looked for the 294 voters to ask them to vote again. (A paper trail would have solved this problem.) 
  81. 2002 North Carolina -  A software programming error overturned the result: In North Carolina, a software programming error caused vote-counting machines to skip over several thousand party-line votes, both Republican and Democratic. Machines aren't supposed to get past quality control, and certainly not past certification, and definitely not past pretesting, if their programming is so flawed. But everyone seemed to yawn. Fixing the error turned up 5,500 more votes and reversed the election. 
  82. 2002 Ohio - In Ohio, a vote-counting machine malfunctioned with 12 of the county's 67 precincts left to count. A back-up vote-counting machine was found, but it also could not read the vote. Election workers piled into a car and headed to another county to tally their votes. 
  83. 2002 Pennsylvania - One hundred percent error tabulating Libertarian votes: In Pennsylvania, a voter reported that he had followed his conscience and voted Libertarian. When he reviewed the results for his precinct, though, the Libertarian candidate received zero votes. Two ways to look at this: Unimportant, just a vote; or, a 100 percent error. Either way, why bother to vote? 
  84. 2002 South Carolina - Pickens County was unable to get totals from two precincts on Election Day because of computer glitches, said Marilyn Bowers, director of the county's Registration and Election Office. Returns were in from one of the precincts, Dacusville II, on Wednesday morning. But votes from the other precinct, Powdersville II, remained out and officials were working to extract information from the computer there in the afternoon." 
  85. 2002 South Carolina - A software programming error of 55 percent: In South Carolina, and it caused more than 21,000 votes in the squeaker-tight race for S.C. commissioner of agriculture to be uncounted; only a hand-count was able to sort it out. Good thing there were paper ballots.  
  86. 2002 South Dakota - Double-counting votes in South Dakota: Blamed on "flawed chip." ES&S sent a replacement chip; voter demanded that the original chip be impounded and examined. Who gets to examine it? ES&S. 
  87. 2002 Texas - In Comal County Texas, the uncanny coincidence of three winning Republican candidates in a row tallying up exactly 18,181 votes each was called weird, but apparently no one thought it was weird enough to audit. 

  88. 2002 Texas - A Republican landslide turned into a Democratic landslide when election officials in Scurry County, Texas did a hand count. / Nov. 7, 2002, 3:08PM Chip glitch hands victory to wrong candidate Associated Press ABILENE - A Scurry County election error reversed the outcomes in two commissioner races

  89. 2002 Texas - 05/08/2002 By ED HOUSEWRIGHT The Dallas Morning News Dallas, TX - "The outcomes of at least 18 suburban Dallas County elections held Saturday remain unclear because of vote-counting problems. About 5,000 of nearly 18,000 ballots cast during the early voting period in April on touch-screen electronic ballots have not been properly counted and assigned to candidates, said Toni Pippins-Poole, the county's assistant elections administrator. The results will not be final until Wednesday or Thursday, but no elections will have to be held again, she said."

  90. 2002 Texas - May. 07, By MITCH MITCHELL Star-Telegram Staff Writer IRVING, TX - "A discrepancy of more than 380 votes - possibly caused by a computer glitch - could put two City Council candidates in a runoff. Unofficial election results released Saturday indicated that Jim Beggs had won the race for Place 5 on the Irving City Council with a slim 51.2 percent majority. The closest challenger, René Castilla, got nearly 43 percent of the vote. But records indicate that Dallas County's computerized voting machines did not count 383 early ballots...On Monday, technicians from Election Systems Software of Omaha, Neb., began examining more than 18,000 computerized files to determine why the discrepancy occurred and who should receive what portion of the 383 votes. " 

  91. 2003 Canada - "In January 2003, during Canada's New Democratic Party leadership convention, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation reported, “Earl Hurd of said he believes someone used a "denial of service" program to disrupt the voting – paralyzing the central computer by bombarding it with a stream of data”…service was restored, then… "Toronto city councilor Jack Layton's victory on the first ballot surprised many, who had expected a second or even third round of voting before a leader was chosen from the pack of six candidates." Editor's note: For election security experts, a strong and growing suspicion is that computer glitches or disruptions are actually vote rigging. A surprise election result should raise a red flag.

  92. 2003 Special Report - Dan Spillane, a voting machine test engineer, has filed a lawsuit against his former employer, DRE touch-screen voting machine manufacturer VoteHere. Spillane's lawsuit charges wrongful and retaliatory termination; he contends he was removed so that he could not blow the whistle to certification labs and pass critical information to the US General Accounting Office. He says he has evidence which shows voting systems are certified despite known flaws, demonstrating a weakness in both the NASED and the ITA system for certifying machines. 

  93. Jun 26, 03 Johns Hopkins Report: Numerous security flaws are identified in a newly published paper entitled 'Analysis of an Electronic Voting System' by Tadayoshi Kohno (JHU), Adam Stubblefield (JHU), Aviel Rubin (JHU), and Dan Wallach (Rice University). Read about it: The Baltimore Sun (Front Page), MSNBC News, CNN, New York Times, The Washington Post, Reuters, CNET News, Scoop, and Headlines@Hopkins.

Editor's note: This is a work-in-progress. Readers are encouraged to send any reports of machine errors, but please send documentation. Some of these reports listed below need more documentation.